At the period 1570, when the Germans claim that Apartments Budapest was invented by Pretorius, a professor of the University of Nurem�burg, it was unquestionably in use in England, and it is men�tioned by Thomas Digges, in his Pantometria, published in 1590, as a platting instrument for such as are ignorant of arithmet�ical calculations. On the relative merits of the theodolite and plane table authorities still differ. Throughout Europe great activity in the development of the practical applications of geometry soon followed the exchange of ideas brought about by the introduction of printing. Side by side with the important geographical discoveries of the age came the minor improvements in scientific instruments which rendered national surveys and geodetic operations possible at a later period. With -trifling modifications the instruments devised by Durer, Newton, and Galileo are in common use to-day. Gradual improvements can be traced in the application of surveying to military and civil purposes, to mapping the cam�paigns of Louis XIV. and Marlborough, and laying down the forfeited estates in Ireland by William III., until in 1729 the first national survey on a large scale, for public and private purposes, was commenced in Savoy and Piedmont by Victor Amadie II., whereon nine years were occupied. The method of large surveys obtained the name of Cadastre (Terrier map). It was suggested for France in 1763, but was only commenced in that country in 1793. The exact derivation and meaning of the French term ” cadastre ” are not free from dispute. Some authorities refer it to the verb ” cadrer ” to square or correspond with, all objects on a large scale, plan, or cadastre being shown in their true position and proportions, whereas in a mere topographical map similar accuracy is impos�sible, and certain features must need be exaggerated for the sake of distinctness. The Dictionuire des Dictionaires on the other hand derives cadastre (formerly capdastre) from the medival-Latin word capitastrum (from caput ” head,” because formerly people were taxed, and afterwards property) and defines it as ” a public regis�ter, containing the quantity and value of landed property, names of owners, etc., and which serves for the assessment of the tax on property in proportion to its revenue.” In the Recueil des Lois et Instructions sur lee contributions directes, the cadastre is defined as ” a plan from which the area of land may be computed, and from which its revenue may be valued.” This, there is no doubt, is the sense in which the word is used on the Continent, while in England it is taken as denoting gen�erally a survey on a large scale. It was not until long after the organization of the Ordnance Survey that it became a cadastral survey. Its organization at first was distinctly for military purposes, and the extension of its operations to cover all national needs only attained after years of discussion, and struggle for existence.The credit of originating and carrying into execution the first tangible project for a systematic topographical survey of part of the kingdom is divided between two engineer officers, both at the time holding distinguished positions on the staff of the British army.
On the Pacific Ocean floor 210 miles off the Galapagos Islands, scientists found life that thrives on chemicals from the Earth’s crust. Special cameras show the find in extraordinary detail. Dive to the Edge of Creation, a new National Geographic Special, takes you to that warm, life-giving crack in a cold, dark ocean. It’s breakthrough television for the entire family. And it’s typical of the kind of television Gulf made a commitment to five years ago. That’s when Gulf joined with the National Geographic Society and the Public Broadcasting Service to present quality, American-made Public Television. Together, we’ve set Public Television viewing records. In fact, the documentaries are consistently the highest-rated specials on PBS. For an hour of discovery television, remember the first Monday of January, February. March and April Join us and enjoy great television that explores passing worlds, small worlds, the world inside your head, and a new world at the bottom of the Pacific.